What are Roman Numerals?
Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome that uses seven symbols (I, V, X, L, C, D, M) in additive and subtractive combinations to represent numbers. For example, MMXXIV is 2024 in Roman numerals. Roman numerals are still used today in some specialized contexts like clock faces, copyright pages, and monument numbering. The system provides a different way to express numbers from the now common Arabic numerals.
In this article, we'll explore the history of Roman numerals, how they work, how to read and write them, as well as much more!
A chart with the Roman numerals 120, as well as the symbols for 50, 100, 500 and 1,000.
The system uses a combination of letters from the Latin alphabet to represent numbers. The basic symbols are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, which represent 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000, respectively.
To form larger numbers, the symbols are combined in various ways. The quantity and order of these letters determine the value of the final number, meaning that the ancient Romans wrote numbers through a combination of just seven letters!
Roman numerals are a fascinating aspect of ancient Roman culture that continues to captivate people today, and continue to influence and be present in modernday architecture and legal documents.
At first glance they can look confusing against our modern way of expressing numbers (which are based on early Arabic numerals), but Roman numerals are actually derived around a base unit of 10 just like modern numbers.
One possible explanation for this is because humans started counting using fingers (See "Origin of Roman Numerals" section below for more).
Table of Contents:
This article on Roman numerals covers the following topics:
1) How to Read Roman Numerals  7) Replacement by HinduArabic 
2) Roman Numerals Chart  8) Medieval and Renaissance 
3) The Subtractive Principle  9) Modern Uses of Roman Numerals 
4) Counting over 3,999  10) The Super Bowl and Roman Numerals 
5) Origin and History of Roman Numerals  11) Importance of Learning Roman Numerals Today 
6) What about Zero?  12) Roman Numerals Converter Tool 

How to Read Roman Numerals
As mentioned above, Roman numerals are written through a combination of seven letters. These are:
Roman Numeral 
Number 
I 
1 
V 
5 
X 
10 
L 
50 
C 
100 
D 
500 
M 
1,000 
In their simplest form, numbers are expressed by combining letters together, effectively creating a small math problem that needs to be solved by adding the letters (or, more specifically, the numbers that they represent, together).
Having these letters such as V and X for 5 and 10 is important, otherwise a number such as 24 would be expressed by having to write 24 individuals "I" letters!
Translating Roman numerals into numbers can be confusing and hard when first starting out, and even experienced scholars often have to take a moment to work it out! Start off by taking a look at the Roman numeral chart below to see it in action.
However, you may find that certain numbers aren't written as you would expect, and why aren't big numbers written as an extremely long line of letters? More detailed explanation can be found underneath the chart.
Roman Numerals Chart
The table chart below shows the Roman numerals for the numbers 125, and a large selection of others. When looking at the chart, it's important to remember and understand how numbers in Roman numerals are structured. As stated above, unlike the Arabic numerals where each digit has its own place value, Roman numerals are formed by combining letters and adding their values together (or subtracting) to reach the desired number.
Selected numbers above 4,000 are shown. However, make sure you also read the section "Was 3,999 the highest that the Romans could count?" further down this page!
Arabic or Modern 
Latin or Roman 
Digit Form 
Ordinal Form 
. 
. 
example  one, two, three... 
example  first, second, third... 
1 
I 
unus  una  unum 
primus 
2 
II 
duo  duae  duo 
secundas 
3 
III 
tres  tria 
tertius 
4 
IV 
quattuor 
quartus 
5 
V 
quinque 
quintus 
6 
VI 
sex 
sextus 
7 
VII 
septem 
septimus 
8 
VIII 
octo 
octavus 
9 
novem 
nonus 

10 
X 
decum 
decimus 
11 
XI 
undecim 
undecimus 
12 
XII 
duodecim 
duodecimus 
13 
XIII 
tredecim 
tertius decimus 
14 
XIV 
quattourdecim 
quartus decimus 
15 
XV 
quindecim 
quintus decimus 
16 
XVI 
sedecim 
sextus decimus 
17 
XVII 
septendecim 
septimus decimus 
18 
XVIII 
duodeviginti 
duodevicesimus 
19 
undeviginti 
undevicesimus 

20 
XX 
viginti 
vicesimus 
21 
viginti unus 
vicesimus primus 

22 
XXII 
viginti duo 
vicesimus secundas 
23 
XXIII 
viginti tria 
vicesimus tertius 
24 
XXIV 
viginti quattuor 
vicesimus quartus 
25 
XXV 
viginti quinque 
vicesimus quintus 
30 
XXX 
triginta 
tricesimus 
40 
XL 
quadraginta 
quadragesimus 
50 
L 
quinquaginta 
quinquagesimus 
60 
LX 
sexaginta 
sexagesimus 
70 
LXX 
septuaginta 
septuagesimus 
80 
LXXX 
octoginta 
octogesimus 
90 
XC 
nonaginta 
nonagesimus 
100 
C 
centum 
centesimus 
200 
CC 
ducenti 
ducentesimus 
300 
CCC 
trecenti 
trecentesimus 
400 
CD 
quadringenti 
quadringentesimus 
500 
D 
quingenti 
quingentesimus 
600 
DC 
sescengenti 
sescentesimus 
700 
DCC 
septingenti 
septingentesimus 
753 
DCCLIII 
sepingenti quinquaginta tria 

800 
DCCC 
octingenti 
octingentesimus 
900 
CM 
nongenti 
nongentesimus 
1000 
M 
mille 
millesimus 
1900 
MCM 
mille nongenti 
millesnongentesimus 
2000 
MM 
duomilia 
bismillesimus 
2100 
MMC 
duomilia centum 
bismilles centesimus 
3000 
MMM 
tresmilia 
tresmillesimus 
4000 
MMMM 
quadramilia 
quadramillesimus 
5000 
V 
quinmilia 
quinmillesimus 
6000 
VM 
sesmilia 
sesmillesimus 
7000 
VMM 
septuamilia 
septuamillesimus 
8000 
VMMM 
octomilia 
octomillesimus 
9000 
MX 
nonamilia 
nonamillesimus 
10,000 
X 
decem milia 
decies millesimus 
11,000 
XM 
undecim milia 
undecim millesimus 
12,000 
XMM 
duodecim milia 
duadecim millesimus 
50,000 
L 
quinqua milia 
quinqua millesimus 
60,000 
LX 
sexa milia 
sexa millesimus 
80,000 
LXXX 
octo milia 
octo millesimus 
90,099 
XCXCIX 
nona milis novaginta novem 
nona millesimus nonus 
100,000 
C 
centum milia 
centies millesimus 
200,000 
CC 
ducenta milia 
ducenta millesimus 
200,100 
CCC 
ducenta milia centum 
ducenta millesimus centum 
200,510 
CCDX 
ducenta milia quindecem 
quindecem 
500,000 
D 
quingenti milia 
quingenti millesimus 
600,000 
DC 
sescenti milia 
sescenti millesimus 
700,000 
DCC 
sepusducenta milia 
sepcenti millesimus 
1,000,000 
M 
mille milia 
mille millesimus 
Related Page: Roman Numerals 1100 Chart
This handy list of Roman numerals provides the most common numbers and useful points of reference. Looking at the chart, certain numbers are straightforward. The letters themselves correspond to the number they represent (e.g. I = 1, V = 5 etc).
Also, many numbers make sense, such as 3 is III (I + I + I).
However, what is happening with other numbers like 4, which is written IV? Should it not be written as IIII? And if you add up the letters how its written (IV) does that not equal 6 (I + V)?
The answer is what is known as the subtractive principle.
The Subtractive Principle
The Romans didn't like having four consecutive letters of the same value together.
Presumably, this was because having lots of letters of the same type together made it difficult to easily determine the value. Expressing the number 8 for example as IIIIIIII would mean a person would have to individually count each "I" to work out what the number was.
To overcome this, the Romans wrote numerals using the subtractive principle or subtractive notion, whereby the first letter of the sequence is subtracted from the larger one.
Once you get used to it, it makes the Roman numerals much easier to read quickly, as they are shorter than they otherwise could have been.
Looking at the Roman numeral chart again above, we can see that the number 9 is written as IX. Essentially this means 10 minus 1, which equals 9.
If it wasn't expressed like this, it would be written down as VIIII (5 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1). Although this would still make sense, it would take slightly longer to read, and lead to more errors if people missed out one of the "I" letters when they were counting them.
Keep in mind that this was a period of time long before the advent of electronics, so numbers would not have been neatly typed and printed. They would have been painted, carved, etched onto surfaces etc. They are likely to have been far from crisp and sharp in their font, making it important to make the sequences as short as practically possible.
How Do I Know the Number Should be Subtracted?
In a system which at first glance is all about adding together the numbers represented by the letters, knowing when to subtract a number can be tricky.
So, how do you know when to add or subtract letters when working out what number the Roman numeral equation represents?
The simple answer is that a number needs to be subtracted if it appears before a larger one. For this, you will need to refer to the chart of the seven letters used in Roman numerals at the top of this page.
A Simple Example
Using the chart, we can see that X is bigger (10) than V (5), which are both bigger than I (1). See how this applies to the numbers below:
XI = 11. The I (1) comes after the bigger number of X (10), which means they need to be added together to make 11.
IX = 9. The I comes before X, which means that 1 must be subtracted from 10, which gives 9.
If we simply added the numbers together that the letters represented, both results would be 11 (X = 10 plus I = 1). This is why whether a smaller number comes before or after the bigger number is so important.
A More Complicated Example – Bigger Numbers
In numbers containing more than two letters, it is only the number that comes after the smaller one which needs to be subtracted from. This is highlighted in the example below:
XXIX = 29. The sum is 10 (X) + 10 (X) + 9 (IX). Roman numerals are read from left to right, so the preceding letters are added together before then subtracting the smaller number from the bigger one that comes after it.
With only a limited number of letters, and with numbers being based around a unit of 10, there are in fact only six instances where this can happen:
 I (1) before V (5) or X (10)
 X (10) before L (50) or C (100)
 C (100) before D (500) or M (1000)
Was 3,999 the Highest That the Romans Could Count?
The highest number that can be expressed in pure Roman numeral form is 3,999 which is written as MMMCMXCIX.
This is because the number 4,000 would have to be written as MMMM, which goes against the principle of not having four consecutive letters of the same type together.
Overcoming This Issue with a Vinculum
The vinculum is a horizontal line used in mathematics above or below a value to indicate a certain purpose, such as a grouping or repeating decimal value. In modern day math it is often replaced by the use of parentheses.
In the Middle Ages, it was common to see numbers over 4,000 expressed in Roman numerals using a vinculum line above the letters. This line represented a multiple of 1,000, and could cover the whole or just the beginning part of a Roman numeral expression.
This makes more sense when looking at the examples below:
 VI = 6 multiplied by 1,000 = 6,000
 XXXV = 35 multiplied by 1,000 = 35,000
 XXVVII – 25 multiplied by 1,000 plus 7 (VII) = 25,007. Notice how the vinculum only extends over the XXV to denote 25,000, whilst the rest of the Roman numeral which does not have the line is just stated as a "normal" Roman numeral.
This may work neatly, however there is much debate over whether this system was in fact actually used by the ancient Romans, or whether it was simply a product of later generations and civilizations.
If this is the case, it implies that the Romans had no way of counting above 3,999. This may sound impossible for us today and our modern way of thinking, but it is not as strange as it sounds...
Roman Counting System and Usage
It needs to be remembered as to what the Romans actually used their number system for. Roman counting was, just as it is now, an integral part of daily life in ancient Rome and was used in various aspects of commerce, engineering, and timekeeping. In terms of trade and commerce, the average trader was highly unlikely to have ever had over 3,999 of anything, whether it be items, money etc.
This may seem extremely alien to us today, with units of currency where we can spend tens or even hundreds of thousands of it in one go on large purchases, or huge corporations that can manufacture and ship millions of items, but it was not all that common back then.
While it may have been less common to deal with numbers of 4,000 and above, or have the need to write it down, it still seems unlikely that the Romans would not deal with some things over this amount.
If the Romans did indeed not use a vinculum for recording numbers in this manner, the explanation might be found in the actual way of quantifying items rather than the numbers themselves.
In today's society we grow up and live in a world of large, total numbers. We have a certain amount of dollars in the bank, it's about 238,855 miles to the moon^{1}, in 2019 US GDP was $21.43 trillion^{2}, about 68 million people live in the United Kingdom^{3} etc.
Huge, total numbers. But whilst the ancient Romans did not have much to think about in such numbers (unless they thought about the number of grains of sand on a beach or something), it is quite likely that they thought of numbers in terms of groups rather than as actual total numbers like we do.
Clues can be found in the way certain elements are structured in the Roman world.
For instance, the Roman military was highly divided into units, which were themselves comprised of other units. As we have seen from the structure of an Imperial legion, a single legion that typically had 6,000 men in it consisted of 10 cohorts. Of these, each cohort was made up of 6 centuriae. Each centuriae was made up of 10 contubernium (tent groups), of which there were 8 men per tent.
Could this organization through grouping be reflective of the Roman way of thinking?
If so, rather than Julius Caesar pondering to himself before a battle that he had an army of 24,000 men, he may have been more likely to just think that he had 6 legions.
Even if he did think about the number 24,000, if he were to write it down somewhere it would be far simpler to write "VI" rather than numerals equivalent to 24,000!
Origin and History of Roman Numerals
The history of Roman numerals and Roman mathematics isn't well documented. As humans likely began counting by using the simplest things available  the fingers  mathematics developed in a base unit of 10.
Actively involved in trade and the use of monetary units, the Romans required a system where counting was more than fingers.
The development of the numeric symbols may have been closely related, originally, to the shape of the hand: I for a single finger, V for the whole hand outstretched, X for both hands in the same manner.
Like so much of early Roman culture, a lot was based on earlier civilizations that existed in the Mediterranean region, which at that time were superior to the fledging Roman Empire.
One of the most similar numbering systems to that used by the Romans was in use by the Etruscans. This will come as no surprise, as the Etruscan civilization covered much of northern Italy, and had a significant impact upon the development of the Romans to the south.
What about Zero? Isn't There a Number Missing?!
Amongst all of the letters and numbers currently swirling around your head as you try and make sense of this ancient numbering system, you may or may not have noticed that nowhere has there been a mention of zero.
In a similar vein to why the Roman numbering system did not readily go above 3,999, the number zero was not featured by the Romans simply because they had little use for it!
When trading in the market, nobody went up to the baker and asked for no loaves of bread (or if they did, the baker would quickly chase them away for wasting their time!) It served very little practical purpose.
Of course, the concept of zero did exist, in the form of nulla (Latin: Nothing) to express an absence of something, but unlike the modern numbering system which need zeros to have meaning (10, 403 etc) the Romans could construct all of their numbers from combining the seven letters listed at the top of the page.
Replacement by the HinduArabic Numbering System
Comparing the Roman numeral system with other number systems can help us understand its unique features and limitations, and why the numbering system of the ancient Romans was gradually replaced, albeit many centuries after the fall of the Roman empire.
The most widely used number system today is the HinduArabic numeral system, which is also known as the decimal system. This system uses ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) to represent all numbers, and it is based on the concept of place value, where the position of a digit in a number determines its value.
Compared to the HinduArabic numeral system, the Roman numeral system has several limitations.
One of the main limitations, as mentioned in the section above, is its lack of a symbol for zero. Without a symbol for zero, it is more difficult to perform arithmetic operations and to represent very large or very small numbers.
In contrast, the HinduArabic system can easily represent any number, no matter how large or small, by using place value and the digit 0.
Another limitation of the Roman numeral system is that it is not a positional system, meaning that the position of a symbol in a number does not determine its value. Instead, the value of a symbol depends on its form and the symbols that come before and after it.
This makes the Roman numeral system less efficient for arithmetic operations and less flexible for representing complex numbers. In contrast, the HinduArabic system is highly efficient for arithmetic operations and can represent any number, including decimals and fractions.
The HinduArabic numeral system began to replace Roman numerals as the most popular numbering system in the world starting in the Middle Ages, around the 12th century AD. This transition occurred gradually over several centuries and was influenced by several factors.
The most important reason was the undeniable fact that it was just easier to use the digits 09 when dealing with numbers and performing mathematical calculations, even simple ones.
While we are much more used to dealing with the digits 09 than Roman numerals, it is quite obvious that it is easier and quicker to write down and find the answer to 3999  38 than it is to write MMMCMXCIX – XXXVIII.
Another factor that contributed to the rise of the HinduArabic system was the growing influence of Islamic scholarship in the Middle Ages.
Muslim mathematicians and astronomers played a key role in the development and spread of the HinduArabic system, which they had learned from the Indian mathematicians who had developed it.
These scholars wrote influential treatises on mathematics and astronomy that spread throughout the Islamic world and beyond, helping to popularize the HinduArabic system.
The widespread adoption of the HinduArabic system was also facilitated by the development of printing technology in the 15th century AD.
The printing press opened the floodgates for the mass production of books and documents, making it easier for the HinduArabic system to spread rapidly throughout Europe and other parts of the world.
Later Roman Numeral Usage During the Medieval, Middle Ages and Renaissance Periods
Long after the fall of the Roman empire, Roman numerals continued to be used for a wide variety of purposes, including in documents, inscriptions, and manuscripts, as well as in everyday life for counting and recording numbers.
Lowercase instances of Roman numerals began to appear, and it became common for a "j" to be used instead of a final "i" (a lowercase I or 1). This typographical flourish was not only an example of the neat, cursivestyle writing that typifies Medieval and later documents, but it also had a practical use.
Well into the early 20th century, the use of a final "j" was still sometimes used in medical prescriptions to prevent tampering with or misinterpretation of a number after it was written. This tampering could be achieved by adding one or more "i" characters onto the end, such as changing "i" to "iii" for example, which would be fairly easy to do.
As documents were handwritten, and by different people in geographically distant lands, the "language" of Roman numerals also began to evolve. A number of additional symbols cropped up now and again which, once they had appeared, began to be copied and used by others when writing Roman numerals in documents.
Some examples of these, observed in surviving documents and manuscripts, can be seen in the table below:
Medieval Letter or Symbol  Number Represented  Notes 
A  5  Resembles an upsidedown V. Could also be used to represent the number 500. 
S,Z  7  Presumed abbreviation of septem (Latin for the number 7). 
X̷  9.5  Scribal abbreviation, an x with a slash through it. Likewise, IX̷ represented 8.5 
O  11  Presumed abbreviation of onze (French for the number 11). 
F  40  Presumed abbreviation of the word forty in English. 
S  70  Could also stand for the number 7, with the same derivation (see "S,Z" above). 
R  80  
N  90  Presumed abbreviation of nonaginta (Latin for the number 90). Ambiguous with N for "nothing" (nihil). 
K  151  Could also represent the number 250. 
T  160  Possibly derived from the Greek word tetra, as 4 × 40 = 160. 
H  200  Could also stand for 2 from a barring of two I's 
E  250  
B  300  
P,G  400  
Q  500  Redundant with D; abbreviates quingenti, Latin for 500. Also sometimes used for 500,000. 
Ω  800  Borrowed from Gothic. 
ϡ  900  Borrowed from Gothic. 
Z  2,000 
Modern Uses of Roman Numerals
Despite being quite cumbersome compared to modern 09 numbers, Roman numerals are still found in a surprisingly wide variety of places.
One possible reason for this is simply because of their age. Quite often people think elements from the past are more stylish than modern taste, and the use of Roman numerals can often give the appearance of elegance.
A common example of this is found in ornate clocks and watches that use Roman numerals on the face or dial instead of 112.
Many other examples exist of where Roman numerals are still used in descriptions and references today. These include:
 Copyright dates on movie credits and TV shows
 Sequels to films (e.g. Rocky III)
 Dates on statues and public buildings
 Referring to monarchs and popes (e.g. Elizabeth II). Also typically appears on their coinage.
 General suffixes (e.g. the golfer Davis Love III)
 Sporting Events (e.g. Superbowl XLIX, WrestleMania XXVIII etc.)
Roman numerals are also still used today as part of an analysis system used by musicians to break down and interpret pieces of music. The system identifies the scale degree of the root note, the quality, and any extensions or inversions the chord may include.
Find out more by checking out our page on Roman Numeral Music Theory and Analysis.
The Super Bowl and Roman Numerals
The Super Bowl is one of the most popular annual sporting events in the United States, and the use of Roman numerals to designate the game has become a tradition. The use of Roman numerals is meant to give the game a sense of grandeur and importance, and to make it stand out from other sporting events.
The use of Roman numerals in the Super Bowl has also sparked interest in the history and significance of these ancient numerical symbols. While the use of Roman numerals in the Super Bowl may seem like a small detail, it has become an important part of the game's identity.
The use of these ancient numerical symbols gives the game a sense of history and tradition, and helps to make it stand out from other sporting events. As the Super Bowl continues to grow in popularity, it is likely that the tradition of using Roman numerals to designate the game will continue for many years to come.
Related Page: The Super Bowl and Roman Numerals: Decoding a Timeless Tradition
Years as Roman Numerals
Talking of Roman numerals in movies and TV shows, if you want to find out when that movie or show you just watched was made, you can work it out yourself using the explanation above… or just use the handy list below which show dates from the year 1990 onwards!
 MCMXC = 1990
 MCMXCI = 1991
 MCMXCII = 1992
 MCMXCIII = 1993
 MCMXCIV = 1994
 MCMXCV = 1995
 MCMXCVI = 1996
 MCMXCVII = 1997
 MCMXCVIII = 1998
 MCMXCIX = 1999
 MM = 2000
 MMI = 2001
 MMII = 2002
 MMIII = 2003
 MMIV = 2004
 MMV = 2005
 MMVI = 2006
 MMVII = 2007
 MMVIII = 2008
 MMIX = 2009
 MMX = 2010
 MMXI = 2011
 MMXII = 2012
 MMXIII = 2013
 MMXIV = 2014
 MMXV = 2015
 MMXVI = 2016
 MMXVII = 2017
 MMXVIII = 2018
 MMXIX = 2019
 MMXX = 2020
 MMXXI = 2021
 MMXXII = 2022
 MMXXIII = 2023
 MMXXIV = 2024
 MMXXV = 2025
Importance of Learning Roman Numerals Today
In our rapidly advancing digital age, the significance of an ancient system of numerical notation like Roman numerals might seem diminished. Yet, the echoes of this intricate method resonate even today, offering both historical insights and practical applications.
Cultural and Historical Significance
Roman numerals, with their unique numerical notation, encapsulate the genius of ancient civilizations. They serve as a testament to Rome's vast influence on various domains, from architecture to the very method of counting we employ.
More than just symbols on a page, they are a reflection of Rome's monumental legacy. This legacy can be observed in various facets:
 Architecture: Many ancient Roman structures, like the Colosseum or the Pantheon, feature inscriptions using Roman numerals. These edifices, some still standing, showcase the architectural prowess of Rome and the numerical system they employed to measure, design, and record.
 Timekeeping: The method of counting hours, especially on sundials and later on clock faces, often utilized Roman numerals. This system of time notation was adopted and perpetuated in various cultures, influencing the way we perceive and denote time even today.
 Literature and Legal Documents: Ancient Roman scripts, legal decrees, and treaties frequently used Roman numerals for dates and other numerical references. This practice underscored the standardized system of recordkeeping and documentation in the expansive Roman Empire.
 Trade and Commerce: The method of counting and recording transactions in the bustling markets of ancient Rome was facilitated by Roman numerals. Their system provided a consistent and universally understood numerical language in a diverse empire, stretching from the British Isles to Northern Africa.
 Art and Decoration: Roman numerals were often used decoratively in mosaics, paintings, and jewelry, emphasizing the aesthetic appeal of this system beyond its functional use.
The pervasive use of Roman numerals in such varied domains underscores the Roman Empire's multifaceted influence. It wasn't just about conquests and territorial expansion; it was about embedding a culture, a way of life, and a system of understanding the world, of which their numerical notation was a vital part.
Everyday Encounters
Roman numerals aren't just confined to dusty history books. They are prominently displayed on clock faces, movie sequels, and even denote groups of the periodic table. An understanding of these symbols ensures we're never out of depth when they cross our path.
Critical Thinking and Flexibility
The system of numerical notation used in Roman numerals varies significantly from our standard base10 system. Grasping this system, where a fixed integer isn't always represented the same way, hones logical reasoning and adaptability.
Tradition and Rituals
From the titles of monarchs to the grandeur of events like the Super Bowl, Roman numerals lend an air of tradition. Their usage in such contexts is not just about the Roman numeral equivalent of a number but about evoking a sense of history and ceremony.
Educational Advantages
Introducing young minds to Roman numerals provides a break from the regular arithmetic. By comparing the Roman numeral symbols with their modern counterparts, students gain a holistic understanding of the evolution of numerical systems.
In essence, while Roman numerals might seem archaic, their prevalence in various facets of modern life underscores their enduring relevance. Embracing them is not just about honoring tradition but about recognizing the interconnectedness of past innovations with present practices.
Roman Numerals Converter Tool
Are you looking to convert Roman numerals? The quick and easy Roman numeral converter tool at the bottom of this page will enable you to do just that in seconds!
Converting Roman numerals to numbers is a straightforward process once you are familiar with the values of the Roman numerals. By adding the values of the symbols together, or subtracting them in the case of subtractive notation, one can easily translate a Roman numeral number into its Arabic numeral equivalent.
Simply type in either a Roman numeral or a modernday number in the relevant box, click convert, and the conversion will appear in the other box instantaneously.
This handy tool is essentially two converter tools in one. It will, as the name suggests, convert a modern, Arabicbased numeral that we use today into an ancient Roman numeral.
Alternatively, type in a single Roman numeral letter (such as L for example) or a sequence of Roman numeral letters (e.g. MMXXIII), click on the ‘Convert’ button, and the conversion and answer will show straight away.
While the Roman numbers converter can provide you with the quick conversion answers you are looking for, for many people it can be hugely rewarding to learn how to read and write Roman numerals and then be able to figure out the conversion yourself, without having to make use of an online Roman numeral conversion tool such as this one.
It may be you want to convert a date into Roman numerals. A lot of people choose to get a tattoo in Roman numerals of a significant date such as the birthday year of a child or the year in which they got married to their partner.
Or, it could just be that you want to find out what number Superbowl or Wrestlemania we're up to now, as these are expressed in Roman numerals!
Whatever your reasons for wanting to convert Roman numerals into today’s numbers or vice versa (a bit of Latin language there for you!), we hope that you find the converter tool of use.
Of course, this tool is only accurate up to the number 3,999... if you've read the rest of this article you'll know why!
This free script provided by
JavaScript Kit
Related Pages:
Please use the links below to check out some of our other pages related to Roman numerals here at UNRV.com:
 99 in Roman Numerals
 LV Roman Numerals
 LIV Roman Numerals
 LVI Roman Numerals
 XXVI Roman Numerals
 XXVII Roman Numerals
 XLV Roman Numerals
 Roman Numerals Tattoo
 Did Gaius Marius Introduce the VII Roman Numeral?
 Roman Numerals and Computer Programs
Roman Numerals in The News:
Did you know...
The first evidence of zero is from the Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia, some 5,000 years ago. The symbol changed over time as positional notation, for which zero was crucial, made its way to the Babylonian empire and from there to India, and to the Greeks. The Romans had no trace of it at all.
Sources for figures:
^{1. https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/moondistance/en/}
^{2. https://www.bea.gov/news/2020/grossdomesticproductfourthquarterandyear2019advanceestimate}
^{3. https://www.worldometers.info/worldpopulation/ukpopulation/}
Related External Pages:
 A real Roman mystery is carved into the stone at Arlington National Cemetery
 Why the Super Bowl Uses Roman Numerals Instead of Arabic Ones
 YouTube Video  Roman Numerals for Kids  Learn How to Read Roman Numerals